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Full text of "History Of Ancient India"

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{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\fswiss\cpg0\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f2\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f3\fswiss\cpg1252\fcharset0 Arial;}{\f4\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f5\fswiss\cpg1251\fcharset204 Arial;}{\f6\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f7\fswiss\cpg1250\fcharset238 Arial;}{\f8\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f9\fswiss\cpg1257\fcharset186 Arial;}{\f10\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f11\fswiss\cpg1254\fcharset162 Arial;}{\f12\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f13\fswiss\cpg1253\fcharset161 Arial;}{\f14\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}{\f15\fswiss\cpg1255\fcharset177 Arial;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f2\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl2586\margr4194\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn2586\margrsxn4194\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\tx2306\tx3235 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw1\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs22 THE STATE{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw0 .{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\expndtw-18 77}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li0\fi0\ri0\sb230\sa0\sl-240\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw6\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 ihava\\ \i0 he is Agni (Fire), Vayu (Wind), Arka (Sun), \expndtw10 ioma (Moon), Dharmarat (Yama), Kubera, Varuna \expndtw11 ind Indra."\super 1\nosupersub  But at the same time it is to be noted \expndtw0 :hat a king, though considered divine, is not represented \expndtw1 is an absolute autocrat ruling with an iron hand for his \expndtw-4 Dwn glory. He wielded the \i Danda \i0 only to maintain and \expndtw9 enforce the \i Dharma. \i0 He was by no means regarded \expndtw6 is above the \i Law. \i0 Indeed, it is said that \i Law \i0 destroys \i\expndtw1 i \i0 king, who is indolent, sensual, tyrannical, and un\-\expndtw4 righteous.\super 2\nosupersub  According to Manu, the sources of \i Dhar\-\expndtw2 ma \i0 are \i (a) \i0 the Vedas, (\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'a3\hich\af0\dbch\af2\loch\f0\cchs0 ) the Smritis, \i (i) A.cdra \i0 i.e., \expndtw3 practices of pious men, and \i (d) \i0 self-satisfaction.\super 3\nosupersub  To \expndtw-2 these Yajnavalkya adds certain secondary sources, like \expndtw-8 deliberation, decision of \i P arts ads %&d. \i0 of learned persons, \expndtw6 temporary needs not inconsistent with one's duties, \expndtw-1 royal edicts, special usages of guilds, corporations, etc., and local customs. Manu also refers to the laws of \charscalex94\expndtw5 countries \i (desadharma), \i0 of castes \i (jdtidharma\\ \i0 of fami\-\expndtw2 lies \i (kuladbarmd]^ \i0 of heretics \i (pdsdndas\\ \i0 and of corpo\-\expndtw-2 rations}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li22\fi420\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-240\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 The \i Dharmasdstras \i0 recognise a Ksatriya alone as \expndtw6 king, although history knows of kings belonging to other castes also. He led a well-regulated and stre\-\expndtw0 nuous life for the good and progress of his people and \expndtw3 kingdom. In the discharge of his onerous responsibi\-\expndtw7 lities, he acted on the advice of a cabinet consisting \expndtw5 of seven or eight ministers, and whatever orders the \expndtw3 king gave were taken down, or passed on, by secreta\-\expndtw2 ries \i (Sahdyas). \i0 He received petitions from his subjects \expndtw7 in the assembly-hall \i (sabhd\\ \i0 adjacent to the palace, \expndtw-2 and decided cases prescribing fines, religious expiations,}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li386\fi0\ri0\sb434\sa0\tx492 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex85\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 2{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\i\expndtw3 Ibid., \i0 VII, 17-28.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li386\fi0\ri0\sb65\sa0\tx492 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex118\expndtw0\f3\cchs0\lang1033\fs17 3{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\expndtw-2 cf . t^tslwt spfsfW wRreft^" =\loch\af1\hich\af1\dbch\f3\cchs0 \'a3\hich\af1\dbch\af3\loch\f1\cchs0 [ ^fep? I}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li379\fi442\ri365\sb0\sa0\sl-254\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw6\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs21 ^NK<K*T ^%mTI^H^fe^ ^ \i \\\\    (Ibid., \i0 II, 6). \i\charscalex80\expndtw1 *Manusmriti\sub 9\nosupersub  \i0 1, 1.18.}\par }